Compare and contrast is a common form of academic writing, either as an essay type on its own, or as part of a larger essay which includes one or more paragraphs which compare or contrast. This page gives information on what a compare and contrast essay is, how to structure this type of essay, how to use compare and contrast structure words, and how to make sure you use appropriate criteria for comparison/contrast. There is also an example compare and contrast essay on the topic of communication technology, as well as some exercises to help you practice this area.
What are compare & contrast essays?
To compare is to examine how things are similar, while to contrast is to see how they differ. A compare and contrast essay therefore looks at the similarities of two or more objects, and the differences. This essay type is common at university, where lecturers frequently test your understanding by asking you to compare and contrast two theories, two methods, two historical periods, two characters in a novel, etc. Sometimes the whole essay will compare and contrast, though sometimes the comparison or contrast may be only part of the essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the similarities or the differences, not both, will be discussed. See the examples below.
There are two main ways to structure a compare and contrast essay, namely using a block or a point-by-point structure. For the block structure, all of the information about one of the objects being compared/contrasted is given first, and all of the information about the other object is listed afterwards. This type of structure is similar to the block structure used for cause and effect and problem-solution essays. For the point-by-point structure, each similarity (or difference) for one object is followed immediately by the similarity (or difference) for the other. Both types of structure have their merits. The former is easier to write, while the latter is generally clearer as it ensures that the similarities/differences are more explicit.
The two types of structure, block and point-by-point, are shown in the diagram below.
Object 1 - Point 1
Object 1 - Point 2
Object 1 - Point 3
Object 2 - Point 1
Object 2 - Point 2
Object 2 - Point 3
Compare and Contrast Structure Words
Compare and contrast structure words are transition signals which show the similarities or differences. Below are some common examples.
Criteria for comparison/contrast
When making comparisons or contrasts, it is important to be clear what criteria you are using. Study the following example, which contrasts two people. Here the criteria are unclear.
Although this sentence has a contrast transition, the criteria for contrasting are not the same. The criteria used for Aaron are height (tall) and strength (strong). We would expect similar criteria to be used for Bruce (maybe he is short and weak), but instead we have new criteria, namely appearance (handsome) and intelligence (intelligent). This is a common mistake for students when writing this type of paragraph or essay. Compare the following, which has much clearer criteria (contrast structure words shown in bold).
Below is a compare and contrast essay. This essay uses the point-by-point structure. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay, i.e. similarities, differences, and structure words. This will highlight not simply the paragraphs, but also the thesis statement and summary, as these repeat the comparisons and contrasts contained in the main body.
Title: There have been many advances in technology over the past fifty years. These have revolutionised the way we communicate with people who are far away. Compare and contrast methods of communication used today with those which were used in the past.
Before the advent of computers and modern technology, people communicating over long distances used traditional means such as letters and the telephone. Nowadays we have a vast array of communication tools which can complete this task, ranging from email to instant messaging and video calls. While the present and previous means of communication are similar in their general form, they differ in regard to their speed and the range of tools available.
One similarity between current and previous methods of communication relates to the form of communication. In the past, both written forms such as letters were frequently used, in addition to oral forms such as telephone calls. Similarly, people nowadays use both of these forms. Just as in the past, written forms of communication are prevalent, for example via email and text messaging. In addition, oral forms are still used, including the telephone, mobile phone, and voice messages via instant messaging services.
However, there are clearly many differences in the way we communicate over long distances, the most notable of which is speed. This is most evident in relation to written forms of communication. In the past, letters would take days to arrive at their destination. In contrast, an email arrives almost instantaneously and can be read seconds after it was sent. In the past, if it was necessary to send a short message, for example at work, a memo could be passed around the office, which would take some time to circulate. This is different from the current situation, in which a text message can be sent immediately.
Another significant difference is the range of communication methods. Fifty years ago, the tools available for communicating over long distances were primarily the telephone and the letter. By comparison, there are a vast array of communication methods available today. These include not only the telephone, letter, email and text messages already mentioned, but also video conferences via software such as Skype or mobile phone apps such as Wechat, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter.
In conclusion, methods of communication have greatly advanced over the past fifty years. While there are some similarities, such as the forms of communication, there are significant differences, chiefly in relation to the speed of communication and the range of communication tools available. There is no doubt that technology will continue to progress in future, and the advanced tools which we use today may one day also become outdated.
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Below is a checklist for compare and contrast essays. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.
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Compare and ContrastBy Maeve Maddox
“Compare with” = contrast; What are the circumstances by which one would use contrast as the verb instead?
In general use, such as in writing a “compare/contrast” essay, compare means “find the similarities” and contrast means “find the differences.”
Definitions from the OED:
compare:. trans. To speak of or represent as similar; to liken.
contrast: To set in opposition … in order to show strikingly their different qualities or characteristics, and compare their superiorities or defects.
Compare derives from Latin comparare “to liken, to compare.” Contrast derives from Latin contra, “against” plus stare, “to stand.” In Middle English the word was used in the literal sense “to withstand” or “fight against” as in battle. The word fell out of use until the end of the 17th century when it was reintroduced as an art term meaning
to place in such juxtaposition as to bring strongly out differences of form, colour, etc., and thus to produce a striking effect.
For differences in meaning between compare to and compare with, see Compared “to” or Compared “with”.Recommended for you: « 16 Manuscript Format Guidelines »
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5 Responses to “Compare and Contrast”
Is this a “compare/contrast” essay question?
“There are a lot of disadvantages from air pollution and it is increasing day by day. Why is it improtant to take steps in controlling air pollution?”
i am a writer, i love to write i feel its the only way i can express mself, no one could ever percieve things the way i do and with the really horrible things i’ve been through in life, no one will ever understand… at least they will never understand the horror ir live thru it like i did. i AM m beautifull depression, and i fought and made it through the storm. but i want to express mself. i like to write songs. i have been having trouble latel and need some advice. email me and hit me up. give me some advice please. and i will greatly appriciate it. and even if theres any writrers out there and would be wiling to hear m stories, and help me write i would love that lol.. thanxxxx
Ah!. OK, now I feel fairly stupid. My problem is that a lifetime of reading good fiction (and having it read to me before I was old enough to indulge myself) has left me with fairly good instincts for what is grammatically correct, but not much depth of understanding of why it should be so. Which is why I love this blog. I hadn’t really realized about objects of prepositions, so that’s a useful bit of knowledge. Thanks!
In the sentence
Our output simply cannot compare with theirs.
“theirs” is the object of the preposition “with.” The verb “cannot compare” has no object.
Useful new information, in both articles. But I am puzzled by one line in the older article about the difference between compare to and compare with. You wrote:
“When compare is used intransitively it should be followed by with: Our output simply cannot compare with theirs.”
Why is that intransitive? Isn’t “their[s] (output)” the object of the verb compare? I do see that my deskside dictionary gives a definition (but, regrettably, no example) for compare as an intransitive verb, and I can’t think of another sentence structure that would be clearly intransitive. So, what is the grammatical function of “theirs” in that sentence?