What does "organic" mean?
The term “organic” refers to the way agricultural products are grown and processed. While the regulations vary from country to country, in the U.S., organic crops must be grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, bioengineered genes (GMOs), petroleum-based fertilizers, and sewage sludge-based fertilizers.
Organic livestock raised for meat, eggs, and dairy products must have access to the outdoors and be given organic feed. They may not be given antibiotics, growth hormones, or any animal by-products.
|Organic vs. Non-Organic|
|Organic produce:||Conventionally-grown produce:|
|Grown with natural fertilizers (manure, compost).||Grown with synthetic or chemical fertilizers.|
|Weeds are controlled naturally (crop rotation, hand weeding, mulching, and tilling).||Weeds are controlled with chemical herbicides.|
|Pests are controlled using natural methods (birds, insects, traps) and naturally-derived pesticides.||Pests are controlled with synthetic pesticides|
|Organic meat, dairy, eggs:||Conventionally-raised meat, dairy, eggs|
|Livestock are given all organic, hormone- and GMO-free feed.||Livestock are given growth hormones for faster growth, as well as non-organic, GMO feed.|
|Disease is prevented with natural methods such as clean housing, rotational grazing, and healthy diet.||Antibiotics and medications are used to prevent livestock disease.|
|Livestock must have access to the outdoors.||Livestock may or may not have access to the outdoors.|
The benefits of organic food
How your food is grown or raised can have a major impact on your mental and emotional health as well as the environment. Organic foods often have more beneficial nutrients, such as antioxidants, than their conventionally-grown counterparts and people with allergies to foods, chemicals, or preservatives often find their symptoms lessen or go away when they eat only organic foods.
Organic produce contains fewer pesticides. Chemicals such as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides are widely used in conventional agriculture and residues remain on (and in) the food we eat.
Organic food is often fresher because it doesn’t contain preservatives that make it last longer. Organic produce is often (but not always, so watch where it is from) produced on smaller farms near where it is sold.
Organic farming is better for the environment. Organic farming practices reduce pollution, conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy. Farming without pesticides is also better for nearby birds and animals as well as people who live close to farms.
Organically raised animals are NOT given antibiotics, growth hormones, or fed animal byproducts. Feeding livestock animal byproducts increases the risk of mad cow disease (BSE) and the use of antibiotics can create antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Organically-raised animals are given more space to move around and access to the outdoors, which help to keep them healthy.
Organic meat and milk are richer in certain nutrients. Results of a 2016 European study show that levels of certain nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, were up to 50 percent higher in organic meat and milk than in conventionally raised versions.
Organic food is GMO-free. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) or genetically engineered (GE) foods are plants whose DNA has been altered in ways that cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding, most commonly in order to be resistant to pesticides or produce an insecticide.
Organic food vs. locally-grown food
Unlike organic standards, there is no specific definition for “local food”. It could be grown in your local community, your state, your region, or your country. During large portions of the year it is usually possible to find food grown close to home at places such as a farmer’s market.
The benefitis of locally grown food
Financial: Money stays within the local economy. More money goes directly to the farmer, instead of to things like marketing and distribution.
Transportation: In the U.S., for example, the average distance a meal travels from the farm to the dinner plate is over 1,500 miles. Produce must be picked while still unripe and then gassed to "ripen" it after transport. Or the food is highly processed in factories using preservatives, irradiation, and other means to keep it stable for transport.
Freshness: Local food is harvested when ripe and thus fresher and full of flavor.
Small local farmers often use organic methods but sometimes cannot afford to become certified organic. Visit a farmer’s market and talk with the farmers to find out what methods they use.
The ongoing debate about the effects of GMOs on health and the environment is a controversial one. In most cases, GMOs are engineered to make food crops resistant to herbicides and/or to produce an insecticide. For example, much of the sweet corn consumed in the U.S. is genetically engineered to be resistant to the herbicide Roundup and to produce its own insecticide, Bt Toxin.
GMOs are also commonly found in U.S. crops such as soybeans, alfalfa, squash, zucchini, papaya, and canola, and are present in many breakfast cereals and much of the processed food that we eat. If the ingredients on a package include corn syrup or soy lecithin, chances are it contains GMOs.
GMOs and pesticides
The use of toxic herbicides like Roundup (glyphosate) has increased 15 times since GMOs were introduced. While the World Health Organization announced that glyphosate is “probably carcinogenic to humans,” there is still some controversy over the level of health risks posed by the use of pesticides.
Are GMOs safe?
While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the biotech companies that engineer GMOs insist they are safe, many food safety advocates point out that no long term studies have ever been conducted to confirm the safety of GMO use, while some animal studies have indicated that consuming GMOs may cause internal organ damage, slowed brain growth, and thickening of the digestive tract.
GMOs have been linked to increased food allergens and gastro-intestinal problems in humans. While many people think that altering the DNA of a plant or animal can increase the risk of cancer, the research has so far proven inconclusive.
Does organic mean pesticide-free?
As mentioned above, one of the primary benefits of eating organic is lower levels of pesticides. However, despite popular belief, organic farms do use pesticides. The difference is that they only use naturally-derived pesticides, rather than the synthetic pesticides used on conventional commercial farms. Natural pesticides are believed to be less toxic, however, some have been found to have health risks. That said, your exposure to harmful pesticides will be lower when eating organic.
What are the possible risks of pesticides?
Most of us have an accumulated build-up of pesticide exposure in our bodies due to numerous years of exposure. This chemical "body burden" as it is medically known could lead to health issues such as headaches, birth defects, and added strain on weakened immune systems.
Some studies have indicated that the use of pesticides even at low doses can increase the risk of certain cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumors, breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Children and fetuses are most vulnerable to pesticide exposure because their immune systems, bodies, and brains are still developing. Exposure at an early age may cause developmental delays, behavioral disorders, autism, immune system harm, and motor dysfunction.
Pregnant women are more vulnerable due to the added stress pesticides put on their already taxed organs. Plus, pesticides can be passed from mother to child in the womb, as well as through breast milk.
The widespread use of pesticides has also led to the emergence of “super weeds” and “super bugs,” which can only be killed with extremely toxic poisons like 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (a major ingredient in Agent Orange).
Does washing and peeling produce get rid of pesticides?
Rinsing reduces but does not eliminate pesticides. Peeling sometimes helps, but valuable nutrients often go down the drain with the skin. The best approach: eat a varied diet, wash and scrub all produce thoroughly, and buy organic when possible.
The best bang for your buck when shopping organic
Organic food is often more expensive than conventionally-grown food. But if you set some priorities, it may be possible to purchase organic food and stay within your food budget.
Know your produce pesticide levels
Some types of conventionally-grown produce are much higher in pesticides than others, and should be avoided. Others are low enough that buying non-organic is relatively safe. The Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit organization that analyzes the results of government pesticide testing in the U.S., offers a annually-updated list that can help guide your choices.
Fruits and vegetables where the organic label matters most
According to the Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit organization that analyzes the results of government pesticide testing in the U.S., the following fruits and vegetables have the highest pesticide levels so are best to buy organic:
Fruits and vegetables you don't need to buy organic
Known as the “Clean 15”, these conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables are generally low in pesticides.
Buy organic meat, eggs, and dairy if you can afford to
While prominent organizations such as the American Heart Association maintain that eating saturated fat from any source increases the risk of heart disease, other nutrition experts maintain that eating organic grass-fed meat and organic dairy products doesn’t carry the same risks. It’s not the saturated fat that’s the problem, they say, but the unnatural diet of an industrially-raised animal that includes corn, hormones, and medication.
What's in American meat?
According to Animal Feed, conventionally raised animals in U.S. can be given:
- Dairy cows – antibiotics, pig and chicken byproducts, growth hormones, pesticides, sewage sludge
- Beef cows – antibiotics, pig and chicken byproducts, steroids, hormones, pesticides, sewage sludge
- Pigs - antibiotics, animal byproducts, pesticides, sewage sludge, arsenic-based drugs
- Broiler chickens - antibiotics, animal byproducts, pesticides, sewage sludge, arsenic-based drugs
- Egg laying hens - antibiotics, animal byproducts, pesticides, sewage sludge, arsenic-based drugs
Other ways to keep the cost of organic food within your budget
Shop at farmers' markets. Many cities, as well as small towns, host a weekly farmers' market, where local farmers sell their produce at an open-air street market, often at a discount to grocery stores.
Join a food co-op. A natural foods co-op, or cooperative grocery store typically offers lower prices to members, who pay an annual fee to belong
Join a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm, in which individuals and families join up to purchase "shares" of produce in bulk, directly from a local farm. Local and organic!
Organic food buying tips
Buy in season – Fruits and vegetables are cheapest and freshest when they are in season. Find out when produce is delivered to your market so you're buying the freshest food possible.
Shop around – Compare the price of organic items at the grocery store, the farmers’ market and other venues (even the freezer aisle).
Remember that organic doesn’t always equal healthy –Making junk food sound healthy is a common marketing ploy in the food industry but organic baked goods, desserts, and snacks are usually still very high in sugar, salt, fat, or calories. It pays to read food labels carefully.
Why is organic food often more expensive?
Organic food is more labor intensive since the farmers do not use pesticides, chemical fertilizers, or drugs. Organic certification is expensive and organic feed for animals can cost twice as much. Organic farms tend to be smaller than conventional farms, which means fixed costs and overhead must be distributed across smaller produce volumes without government subsidies.
Shopping in the grocery stores, consumers will find increasingly congested stacks of food with the labels of “organic food”. Organic food has been one of the fastest growing sectors of food industry in the past few decades as a legitimate alternative to conventional food. Organic food can be defined as the “product of a farming system which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth promoters and additives” (Kouba 33). There is a growing market for organic food even though its price is usually significantly higher than that of conventional food. The reasons of such large demand of organic food lie in its benefits. Why do people purchase organic food over traditional food, and what makes it more and more demanding? Many research studies regard organic food as healthy food because it contains low pesticide residue. Moreover, many consumers find organic food more nutritious and better-tasting than traditional food. Also, the positive environmental impact of organic farming appeals to “green” eaters, who consider organic food environmentally friendly. Therefore, both empirical data and consumer preferences reveal that the benefits of organic food include less hazardous pesticide, more nutrition, and a farming technique that is more environmentally friendly than non-organic food.
Organic food is based on very precise standards of production, and its non-pesticide requirements are an integral part of the identification and labeling of such products. With respect to chemicals, organic agriculture refrains from the use of “synthetic pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, fungicides, veterinary drugs, synthetic preservatives and additives” (Shepherd et al.3). Thus, the hazardous residues in organic food are restricted to the lowest amount possible. In fact, many researches have shown the harmfulness of pesticide residues on human health, so pesticide-free organic food is considered much healthier than conventional food.
Studies have shown a relatively low presence of pesticide residue in organic food compared to conventional food. For instance, the amount of two primary pesticides, DDT and LINDANE, is restricted to the lowest pounds per dairy (ppd). DDT residue in organic milk has a mean of 0.0217 ppd and can be as low as non-detectable. In comparison, the mean DDT value in conventional milk is 0.0921 ppd, over four times that of organic milk (Kouba 35). Similarly, the average LINDANE residue in conventional milk is twice that in organic milk (Kouba 35). These two sets of data provide evidence for a lower residue quantity in organic milk compared to conventional milk. Moreover, the Pesticide Data Program in the United States Department of Agriculture monitors pesticide residues in the United States, and their most recent results also prove that there is little pesticide remnants in organic food. In all the organic samples tested, USDA found that 29.5 percent of the samples contain no detectable pesticides, 30 percent contain only one pesticide and 40 percent contain more than 1 pesticide (Pesticide). Hence, the empirical data from USDA further supports that there are lower levels of residue contaminant in organic food. The scientific evidence is crucial in determining the consumer’s attitude towards purchasing organic food. As people value healthy food and safe food more, consumers are likely to choose the healthier and safer organic food over the conventional food, thus expands the market of organic food.
Researchers have found a general negative correlation between the exposure to pesticides and health conditions. Pesticides are associated with well-known acute health problems such as “nausea, dizziness, vomiting, headaches, abdominal pain, and skin and eye problems” (Ecobichon 643). Long-term exposure to pesticides even increases the risks of more serious chronic diseases such as respiratory problems, memory deficits and miscarriages (McCauley et al. 953). Based on the studies by Ecobichon and McCauley et al., pesticides are correlated with many discomforts and diseases, so exposure to pesticides increases the risks of having health problems. Moreover, Kouba studies the effect of pesticides on male farmers and shows a lower sperm concentration among non-organic farmers than organic farmers (36). Suggested by the study of Kouba, men’s health can be negatively affected by constant exposure to pesticides. Additionally, current studies have shown a potential for childhood cancer and Parkinson disease from long-term pesticide contact (Daniels et al. 1068; Firestone et al. 91). According to the various health problems related to pesticide exposure, substantial pesticide intake from diet contributes to health risks. Therefore, compared to conventional food, organic food is healthier in respect to its low pesticide residue. Recognizing the consequences of pesticide intake, consumers tend to choose the safer organic food which has lower pesticide.
Nutritional Values and Better Tastes
Besides the low pesticide residue contamination, another benefit of organic food is good taste and increased nutritious values. A 4-year, 12-billion-pound EU study on the benefits of organic food suggests that some organic foods, such as fruits, vegetables and milk, are more nutritious than non-organic equivalents (Paddock). The researchers carried out many scientific experiments where the findings indicate a high concentration of antioxidants, minerals and other healthy chemicals in organic fruits, vegetables and dairy. For instance, organic strawberry, blueberry and apples contain up to 40 percent more antioxidants than conventional equivalents (Ungoed-Thomas). Antioxidants minimize rates of natural chemical oxidation of body cells and thus support healthy organs. Clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of antioxidants in heart-promotion, thus the intake of antioxidant is beneficial to health (Sies 291). The EU study also found a higher level of minerals such as Zinc and Iron in organic vegetables, which further proves the high nutritional value of organic food (Ungoed-Thomas). Therefore, with a higher concentration of antioxidants and minerals, organic fruits, vegetables and milk are more nutritious and healthier than non-organic ones.
Organic fruits and vegetables are not only more nutritious, but they also have better tastes. A study by Washington State University in 2001 involved a panel of tasters who believed that organic apples taste sweeter (Green). The tasters also claimed that the texture of the organic apples was smoother than those grown conventionally. Many consumers have preferences of organic fruits not only because they are more nutritious, but also because of their better tastes. Some researchers attributed the differences of tastes to the better soil quality in organic farming techniques compared to that in traditional farming (Green). Due to the higher quality of soil which contains more organic matters and natural nutrients, organic fruits yield more fructose, which makes them taste sweeter. In short, many consumers favor organic food over conventional ones because the taste and texture of organic food are generally better.
Environmental Impact of Organic Food
Besides its low pesticide contaminants and higher nutrition, the merits of organic food include its sustainability and positive environmental impacts. The benefits of organic farming to the wider environment have been studied, and the major advantages are biodiversity, high soil quality and low energy output. On average, organic farms provide more natural habitants for wildlife (Shepherd et al. 18). The soil and water in organic farms generally contain low pesticide remnants, and the absence of hazardous chemicals from pesticides avoids killing non-harmful insects and flora .Biodiversity is important to an ecosystem because it encourages the diversity of species and genes and thus balances the predominance of the growing crop. A system with the coexistence of diverse species tends to yield better quality of crops.
Apart from the preservation of biodiversity, organic farming also improves the quality of soil. Soil Organic Matters (SOM), such as organic and nitrogen compounds, are essential for soil to produce high-quality crops. Organic systems generally have more SOM because they avoid non-organic fertilizers which can be detrimental to the natural organic structure of soil (Shepherd et al. 26). Since organic farms are absent of fertilizers, all the substances recycled in the soil are organic. Thus, since the inputs in organic farms are always organic matters, the SOM returned to soil are higher than in non-organic farms. In this way, organic farms use less hazardous fertilizers, which not only preserve the natural soil structure but also increase the quality of crops.
The third important benefit of organic farming to the environment is its lower emission of carbon dioxide. Haas and Kopke’s study compared carbon dioxide emissions from organic and conventional farming. The CO2 emission of organic farms is only 40 percent that of conventional. Similar results are derived by other researchers: an anonymous study found the ratio of CO2 emission of organic farms over that of conventional farms to be 34/100. Rogaski duplicated Haas and Kopke’s study and he found the percentage to be 52 (Shepherd et al. 53). The lower levels of CO2 emission in organic farms is mostly due to fewer energy inputs because fewer fossil fuels are burnt. Organic farms are usually smaller than conventional ones, and thus the average energy input per area is smaller. Therefore, the energy saving feature of organic farms is another aspect of its environmental conservation.
The growing prosperity of organic food industry indicates a greater health concern from the public because organic food contains more nutrients that are essential for good health. The lower pesticide residue is another advantage of organic foods because pesticide exposure can be the cause of various health problems. Since people value environmental protection more than ever, the positive environmental impacts of organic farming, such as biodiversity, better soil quality and less CO2 emission, are also advantages of organic foods.