This page is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
|Republic of India|
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
18°58′30″N72°49′33″E / 18.97500°N 72.82583°E / 18.97500; 72.82583
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ram Nath Kovind|
• Prime Minister
• Chief Justice
• Speaker of the Lower House
|Legislature||Parliament of India|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|15 August 1947|
|26 January 1950|
|3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[b] (7th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|395.9/km2 (1,025.4/sq mi) (31st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|$8.727 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|$2.384 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
medium · 79th
|HDI (2014)|| 0.609|
medium · 130th
|Currency||Indian rupee (₹) (INR)|
• Summer (DST)
|DST is not observed|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||IN|
The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य) is a country in Asia. It is at the center of South Asia. India has more than 1.2 billion (1,210,000,000) people, which is the second largest population in the world. It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and the largest country in South Asia. It is also the most populous democracy in the world.
India has seven neighbours: Pakistan in the north-west, China and Nepal in the north, Bhutan and Bangladesh in the north-east, Myanmar in the east and Sri Lanka, an island, in the south.
The capital of India is New Delhi. India is a peninsula, bound by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long. India has the third largest military force in the world and is also a nuclear weapon state.
India's economy became the world's fastest growing in the G20 developing nations in the last quarter of 2014, replacing the People's Republic of China. India's literacy and wealth are also rising. According to New World Wealth, India is the seventh richest country in the world with a total individual wealth of $5.6 trillion. However, it still has many social and economic issues like poverty and corruption. India is a founding member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and has signed the Kyoto Protocol.
India has the fourth largest number of spoken languages per country in the world, only behind Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Nigeria. People of many different religions live there, including the five most popular world religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. The latter three religions came from the Indian subcontinent along with Jainism.
National Symbols of India[change | change source]
The National emblem of India shows four lions standing back-to-back. The lions symbolise power, pride, confidence, and courage (bravery). Only the government can use this emblem, according to the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005
The name India comes from the Greek word, Indus, ultimately derived from the word sindhu, which in time turned into Hind or Hindi or Hindu. The preferred native name or endonym is "Bharat" in Hindi and other Indian languages as contrasted with names from outsiders.
History[change | change source]
Main article: History of India
Two of the main Classical languages of the world— Sanskrit and Tamil, were born in India. Both of these languages are more than 3000 years old. The country founded a religion called Hinduism, which most Indians still follow. Later, a king called Chandragupt Maurya built an empire called the Maurya Empire in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country. From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC — AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas. Southern India at that time was famous for its science, art, and writing. The Cholas of Thanjavur were pioneers at war in the seas and invaded Malaya, Borneo, Cambodia. The influence of Cholas are still well noticeable in SE Asia.
Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.
In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest against British control. One of the people who were leading the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence". On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. Every year, on this day, Indians celebrate Republic Day. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.
After 1947, India has had a socialist planned economy. It is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and city which was not a part of India until 1961. The Portuguese refused to give it to the country, and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998, and it is one of the few countries that has nuclear bombs. Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.
Government[change | change source]
India is the largest democracy in the world.
India's government is divided into three parts: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).
The legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two groups: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members, and the Lok Sabha has 552 members.
The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, help the Prime Minister. Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India on May 16, 2014. He is the 19th Prime Minister of India.
The judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India. In India, there are also 24 High Courts.
Geography and climate[change | change source]
India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country.
India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. One of the seven wonders of the world is in Agra: the Taj Mahal. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.
India has different climates. In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter. The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions. The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land dries out because there is less rain) are possible.
Defence[change | change source]
Main article: Indian Armed Forces
The Indian Armed Forces is the military of India. It is made up of an Army, Navy and Air Force. There are other parts like Paramilitary and Strategic Nuclear Command.
The President of India is its Commander-in-Chief. However, it is managed by the Ministry of Defence. In 2010, the Indian Armed Forces had 1.32 million active personnel. This makes it one of the largest militaries in the world.
Currently, the Indian Army is becoming more modern by buying and making new weapons. It is also building defences against missiles of other countries. In 2011, India imported more weapons than any other nation in the world.
From its independence in 1947, India fought four wars with Pakistan and one war with China.
Indian states[change | change source]
For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Delhi, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-nine states, and seven union territories.
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa|
|Daman and Diu||Daman|
Trouble with the borders[change | change source]
There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are.Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian government claims it as an Indian state. Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.
In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord. In July 1914, China withdrew from the agreement. Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.
Economy[change | change source]
Main article: Economy of India
The economy of the country is among the world's fastest growing. It is the 7th largest in the world with a nominal GDP of $2,250 billion (USD), and in terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth $8,720 trillion USD). The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on:
India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.
However, despite economic growth, India continues to suffer from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005. In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than USD $2 a day, which was lowered to 68% by 2009.
People[change | change source]
There are 1.12 billion people living in India. India is the second largest country by the number of people living in it, with China being the first. Experts think that by the year 2030, India will be the first. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas, or land set aside for farming. The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad. India has 23 official languages. Altogether, 1,625 languages are spoken in India.
Languages[change | change source]
There are many different languages and cultures in India. The only geographical place with more different languages and cultures is the African continent. There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.
Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers. It is the official language of the union. Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in the administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'. The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognised to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.
In the south of India, many people speak Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. In the north, many people speak Chhattisgarhi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, and Marathi, Oriya, and Bihari.
India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages.Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi);Tamil,Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, and Odia are officially the "classical languages of India."
|Language||Long form||English Pronunciation||Short form|
|Assamese||ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য||Bhārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভাৰত Bharot|
|Bengali||ভারত গণরাজ্য||Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভারত Bharot|
|English||Republic of India||India|
|Gujarati||ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક||Bhartiya Prajasattak||ભારત.|
|Hindi||भारत गणराज्य||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||भारत Bhārat|
|Kannada||ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||ಭಾರತ Bhārata|
|Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei)||ভারত গণরাজ্য||ভারত|
|Marathi||भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक||Bhartiya Prajasattak||भारत Bhārat|
|Nepali||भारत गणराज्य||Bʰārat Gaṇarāǳya||भारत Bʰārat|
|Punjabi||ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ||Bhārat Gantantar||ਭਾਰਤ Bhārat|
|Sanskrit||भारत गणराज्यम्||Bhārata Gaṇarājyam||भारत Bhārata|
|Tamil||இந்தியக் குடியரசு||Indiyak-Kudiyarasu||இந்தியா India/Bharadham|
|Telugu||భారత గణరాజ్యము||Bʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamu||భారత్ Bhārath|
|Urdu||جمہوریہ بھارت||Jumhūrīyat-e Bhārat||بھارت Bhārat|
Culture[change | change source]
Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE, although these were orallytransmitted for centuries before this period. Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible ritualised music.
Several modern religions are linked to India, namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.
The religion of Hinduism is the main faith followed by 79.80% of people in the Republic of India; Islam – 14.23%; Christianity – 2.30%; Sikhism – 1.72%; Buddhism – 0.70% and Jainism – 0.37%.
It's the first time ever since independence that Hindu population percentage fell below 80%.
Technology[change | change source]
India sent a spacecraft to Mars for the first time in 2014. That made it the fourth country and only Asian country to do so. India is the only country to be successful in its very first attempt to orbit Mars. It was called the Mars Orbiter Mission.
ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission to create world record. India became the first nation in the world to have launched over a hundred satellites in one mission. That was more than the 2014 Russian record of 37 satellites in a single launch.
Pop culture[change | change source]
India has the largest movie industry in the world.[source?] Based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the industry is also known as Bollywood . It makes 1,000 movies a year, about twice as many as Hollywood.
Sports[change | change source]
Main article: Sports in India
There is no national game in India. Indians have excelled in Hockey. They have also won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka and won the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy.Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.
Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala. The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.
Notes[change | change source]
- ↑"[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram
August 15 is a memorable day in the history of India. It was on August 15, 1947, that India won her independence after a long and bitter struggle. At the stroke of midnight, Jawaharlal Nehru read out his “Tryst with destiny” speech, proclaiming India's independence. He became the first Prime Minister of Independent India. Today, as befitting the day, there are celebrations all over the nation with the national flag being hoisted. From the ramparts of the Red Fort in New Delhi, the Prime Minister delivers his message to the nation. His speech highlights the achievements of the government during the past year and also pays tribute to freedom fighters.
I love my India
On August 15 we celebrated our 64th Independence Day. Kids wrote in to say what they loved most about India. While some said it was the varied culture and heritage, others spoke of the beauty of the country.
Unity in diversity
India is a land of different cultures, heritages, many languages and religions. Despite the differences our India is united in its diversity.
The people of this country, its beautiful cultures, its languages, the places and the good heart of the Indians make us feel proud that we are born in such a beautiful land. Our mother India has been teaching her children different skills and talents such as sports, archery, defences, music, dance, art, humanity, kindness, love, tenderness and acting, .When we have such a beautiful land to live in, then why will not our heart be filled with pride?.
SHREYANK S. KOTIAN, IX C, Milagres P.U. College, Mangalore
My soul — India
This is a land of picturesque beauty, the crown of our pride, the land of diversities, the land of culture and style and it fills me with pride. We are like different beads joined together by an invisible string . Our country's legacy, history, deep-rooted value system binds us as one.
MEENASHY JOY, VIII B, Excel Public School, Kunnamkulam, Kerala
Land of peace
I love my country because India is a nation with unity in diversity. It is a proponent of peace. Peace especially through spirituality is a basic and unique quality of India. People from other nations are getting attracted towards India to achieve peace of mind. India is a land of festivals. Festivals like Diwali, Holi, do not belong to any one community but is celebrated by all.
Numerous languages, and cuisines are also unique to India. Our Tricolour represents peace, prosperity and renunciation with the Ashoka Chakra being the wheel of law of Dharma. India is a democratic country, that is, it is by the people, of the people, for the people. We all have the right to express ourselves in building the Nation.
SANJANA R.P., VII-E, Bal Bharati Public School, GRH Marg, New Delhi
I am an Indian
India is the largest democracy in the world in the truest meaning of the word “democracy”. India is secular. In the midst of various languages spoken, castes and customs the country remains united. You can travel from Kanyakumari to Himalayas as an ‘Indian'. We have Free Press, Media, Judiciary, Election Commission, C.V.C., N.H.R.C., Right to Information Act, Food Act (on the anvil) and more and all this fascinates me making me say, I am a happy and proud citizen of India. I would like to quote Nehru, “Our country is a very big country and there is a great deal to be done by all of us. If every one of us does his/her mite, then all mounts up and our country can prosper and go ahead.”
K. NANDAKUMAR, XI., Chennai Public School, Chennai
I love festivals
A great salute to our national flag on the 64th Independence Day. It is a national festival that is celebrated with joy and happiness by all of us. India is the birth place of so many fairs and festivals. They represent our rich cultural heritage and help promote unity among all religions. A number of religious festivals like Dusserah, Christmas, Ramzan, and important national days like Independence Day, Republic Day and Children's Day are celebrated. Age-old traditions, customs, rituals, prayers, dresses, ornaments, dance and music forms, varieties of food items are unique features of festivals in India and attract many foreigners from different countries to visit India. I like our Indian festivals and feel proud to say that India celebrates numerous festivals.
C. V .S. JITENDRA, IV B, Mahita Public School, Vijayawada
Best place to be
August 15 is an important day for us because that is the day our country got its independence. I love India because it is blessed with a wonderful heritage. Visitors from other countries have commented that there is no better place than India. The strong hope and faith in the potential of the people makes me feel proud about her .Jai Hind !
A.V.S.VAISHNAVI, IX, Little Angels School, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
I love my India, because it is so unique. Being an Indian give me great pride. I have been inspired a lot by the many patriotic poems that I have read and probably that is the reason for this sense of great patriotism in me. The land that gives me food, water all the resources I need; the land that would one day make me move ahead to achieve my goals through a so-called Indian personality. I really love my India not only because of my sustenance but also because of its tremendous achievements in almost all the fields. A sense of awe arises within me when I sing the national anthem. Many great people were born in India.
According to me, a true Indian is the one who respects India in his heart throughout his life. I love my India because of its various cultures and traditions. The fact that I am introduced to so many religions makes me feel good. I think to be an Indian is to be an amalgamation of all the cultures of India. The 64 glorious years of post -independence should be celebrated by all, in order to commemorate all those who died in making it so.
R.HUMSINI, XI B, Ramjas School, New Delhi
When we say the name “India” we get a feeling of being together. India is said to be incredible because many languages are spoken here and many people from different religions live together.
Indians are said to be the second smartest in the world because of their intelligent thinking. I am an Indian. It is a unique country which practises different cultures. In my street there are people of different religions, but we are united.
India is rich in agriculture. The most valuable crops are grow here. For example rice and wheat are good crops which are grown the most in our country.
One thing I hate about my country is the corruption. When India is made corruption-free then our governance will be responsive and transparent. As Abdul Kalam said the youth are going to make India corruption-free by 2020. Youth are the wonders of India. When we get rid of corruption we call our country “The Incredible India”.
India is rich in resources. The flora and fauna is also something to be proud of.
India is famous for its beautiful temples, sculptures, statues and drawings. Tanjore paintings are beautiful and sculptures are amazing.
India is a beautiful country — Goa with its beaches, trees and rivers, Jammu and Kashmir, Kochi, Rameshwaram and so many other places.
KODEESHWARAN, IX Grade, St. Joan of Arc International School, Tiruchi
It's my family
I love my India because I am born here. My parents, sister, grandparents and relatives live here. India is mother to all her citizens. Whenever I travel, I feel very homely in any part of India. Hindi and food are the main connecting bonds between people all over India. Indians are considered very intelligent all over the world. Hence I feel proud to be an Indian.
APOORVA. R.P., III-C, Bal Bharati Public School, Pusa Road, New Delhi
Long, varied history
I love India because of its history. It has a history that dates back to the days when America was not even known to the world. In fact, it was because of India's wealth and spices that Columbus sailed around the world and accidentally found America! With a very large timeline and countless number of heroes and villains, kings and ministers, I think India is the mother of history. But the most impressive thing about India is her freedom fighters who risked their lives to save our peaceful country for us to enjoy. All this makes me feel proud to be an Indian. Now it's our job to drive away poaching, poverty, pollution and corruption from our country. Jai hind!
ASHWIN MAHESH SRINIVASAN, V L, PSBB S.S. School, Chennai
Simply the best
India's diversity in culture, relationship values and its unity in diversity are some of the things one cannot find in any other nation. I am proud to say that I belong to the land of many great people like Mahatma Gandhi. Indians have never let their culture and nation to be under estimated. They have fought for their freedom and no Indian feels ashamed to say ‘I am an Indian'. India's national anthem was even voted to be one of the best national anthems in the world which makes me proud. When I grow up I will surely help this country and people here and will not serve any other country because this is the country which has given me everything I need.
ANGITHA, XI-B, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Andrews Ganj, New Delhi
India is a very beautiful country. It has a lot of trees, plants and forests. It is a mystical place. No wonder they call it “Incredible”.
The climate is very good. There is nothing better than a walk in the morning on the streets of India.
The cultures in India are mixed together. When the British left India they left some of their lifestyle to us. We follow them in the office and at home. We merge those lifestyles and follow our own habits. This is a thing which you see nowhere except in India.
One thing to be considered is that India is the second smartest country in the world and others depend on India.
So I conclude that India is a very incredible and mystical — yet to be discovered. Even though it has things like corruption which we have to work towards getting rid off, one day we will become the best and I love my India.
P.V NARASIMAN, IX Grade, St. Joan of Arc International
Sare jahan se achcha
I love my India and I am proud to say I am an Indian — sare jahan se achcha.
I am proud of its natural resources and its friendly people. We celebrate many different festivals here and my heart fills with pride for my motherland.
MEGHNA MURALI, V A , Holy Angels ISC School, Nanthancode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
She makes me proud…
Hovering over us is corruption, terrorism and mishaps. But what makes me proud is — “We are one”. The 28 diversities unite to form India. The land where pride begins, the land where sorrows end and smiles originate, that is India. Customs, tradition and perceptions don't matter.
The vast diversities cannot seek an end but flow into the vast sea “Unity”. Yes, the land where unity rises and discrimination sets, that's the land — India.
FARZANA MUMTAZ, VIII B, Excel Public School, Arthat , Kunnamkulam, Kerala